Dengue

What is Dengue fever ?

Dengue is a mosquito-borne seasonal viral infection caused by any one of four closely related viruses ((DENV 1-4 or DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 or DEN-4).  Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. . The mosquitoes that spread dengue usually bite at dusk and dawn but may bite at any time during the day, especially indoors, in shady areas, or when the weather is cloudy. It is also known as break bone fever, since it can be extremely painful. Unlike  malaria , dengue is just as prevalent in the urban districts of its range as in rural areas.

Mosquitoes generally acquire the virus while feeding on the blood of an infected person. After virus incubation for 8-10 days, an infected mosquito is capable, during probing and blood feeding, of transmitting the virus, to susceptible individuals for the rest of its life. Infected female mosquitoes may also transmit the virus to their offspring by transovarial (via the eggs) transmission, but the role of this in sustaining transmission of virus to humans has not yet been delineated.

Symptoms of Dengue :-

  • High fever
  • Severe headache
  • Severe pain behind the eyes
  • Muscle and bone pain
  • Rash
  • Mild bleeding

After the virus enters the human body, it takes 5-6 days for the symptoms to become visible. The main symptoms of dengue are high fever (103-105 degrees fahrenheit), severe headache, severe pain behind the eyes, joint pain, muscle and bone pain, rash, and mild bleeding from nose or gums. T his marks the beginning of a 24- to 48-hour period when the smallest blood vessels (capillaries) become excessively permeable, allowing the fluid component to escape from the blood vessels into the peritoneum and pleural cavity (leading to pleural effusions). This may lead to failure of the circulatory system and shock, followed by death, if circulatory failure is not corrected. In addition, the patient with DHF has a low platelet count and hemorrhagic manifestations, tendency to bruise easily or other types of skin hemorrhages, bleeding nose or gums, and possibly internal bleeding.

Precautions:-

The best preventive measure for residents living in areas infested with Ae. aegypti is to eliminate the places where the mosquito lays her eggs, primarily artificial containers that hold water.

  • Items that collect rainwater or to store water should be covered or properly discarded
  • Pet and animal watering containers and vases with fresh flowers should be emptied and cleaned (to remove eggs) at least once a week. 
  • Avoid the use of potted plants. If you have them at home, change water every alternative days. 
  • Using air conditioning or window and door screens reduces the risk of mosquitoes coming indoors
  • You should keep the surrounding environment of your house and office clean.

Know about Dengue Vaccine:-

http://www.pdvi.org/about_dengue_vaccine/about_dengue_vaccine.asp